Khammam town which was the seat of Taluk Administration was part of the larger Warangal District, till 1st October, 1953. After which five taluks of the Warangal district viz., Khammam, Madhira, Yellandu, Burgampadu and Paloncha (Now Kothagudem) were carved out and a new district KHAMMAM with Khammam as District Headquarters was formed. In 1959 Bhadrachalam Revenue Division consisting of Bhadrachalam and Nuguru Venkatapuram Taluks of East Godavari district, which were on the other side of the river Godavari were merged into Khammam on grounds of geographical contiguity and administrative viability.

Origin of the Name : The present name of Khammam is said to have been derived from the name of the temple ‘Narsimhadri’, later ‘Stamba Sikhari’ and then it was termed as ‘Stambadhri’.The vertical rock under the temple is known as ‘KAMBA’. The name of the town Khammam seems to have been derived from the name of this hill of Kamba and the district is named as Khammam.
History :Paleolithic man probably roamed around the areas of lower Godavari valley and the surroundings of Bhadrachalam, Kothagudem, Sathupally and Paloncha Taluks in the district. Pre historic rock paintings were found near Neeladri konda near Lankapalli of Sathupally Taluk. Megalithic Dolmens were found at Janampet of Pinapaka Taluk. Megalithic site on the campus of Government Degree college in Khammam has yielded Pottery and Skeletal remains. Kistapuram and Padugonigudem villages in Gundala Taluk of the district were rich in Megalithic cultural remnants explored and discovered recently.
Language : With regard to the languages spoken, apart from Telugu, English, Urdu, Hindi and Marathi languages are also spoken in day to day dealings by the people. Even Telugu language has imbibed many words and phrases from these languages.
Geography : Khammam is one of the leading districts of the state of Andhra Pradesh in total forest coverage. Out of a total geographical area of 16029 Sq. Km,in the district, an area of 7488.82 Sq Km is under forest cover spreading over 5 territorial and one wild life division. River Godavari passes through the eastern part of the district and harbours one of the richest bio-diversity in the state. Other tributaries of river Godavari like Taliperu, Kinnersani and Sabari also help in bringing prosperity to the area. Commonly seen tree species are Teak, Nallamaddi, Bijasal, Jitregi (Rosewood), Hard Vickia, Binta, Bamboo etc.
Crops : There are a wide variety of crops grown in the Khammam district. Among various crops grown, the climate is most favourable for Maize, Pulses, Cotton and Chilly. Other crops grown here include Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Red gram, Green gram, Black gram, Horse gram, Bengal gram, Cowpea, Groundnut, Sesamum, Castor, Sunflower, Chillies, Sugarcane and Tobacco. Livestock production is an integral part of farming system.
Economy : Dairy, Poultry, Sheep, Goat rearing and Piggeries provide gainful employment to small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers, unemployed rural youth and self help group members. Protein rich milk, meat and eggs produced from livestock, supplements the diet of rural people. Sericulture is an important agro-based labour intensive rural industry with adequate scope to contribute to increase the rural economy with high potential for work, like leaf picking, culture, and application of manure & fertilizers and feeding silkworms and harvesting of cocoon in the Sericulture activity.
Soil : Khammam District is endowed with Agro climatic and Soil conditions in which a wide range of Horticulture crops like Mango, Banana, Cashew, Coconut, Oil palm, Cocoa, Pepper Areca nut etc., can be grown. Production of various kinds of fruits, vegetables, flowers, establishing orchards and plantations production and distribution of fruit plants and vegetable seeds are the major activities supported by the Horticulture Department. The District has 84,583.00 Hectare of land under Horticulture crops with a total production of 4,24,506.000 Metric tonnes of Horticulture produce.
Culture : Khammam district is a conglomeration of mosaic cultures representing the Hindus, Muslims and Christians. There are a sizeable number of scheduled tribes, who constitute an integral part of the Hindu community. Among tribes, koyas and lambadas constitute a sizeable part of the population. The tribal people are still following their own traditions and customs in their social life.
Demographics : According to the 2011 census Khammam district has a population of 2,798,214, roughly equal to the nation of Jamaica or the US state of Utah.This gives it a ranking of 140th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 175 inhabitants per square kilometre (450 /sq mi) .[15] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 8.5%.Khammam has a sex ratio of 1010 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 65.46%. The density of population has grown from 51 to 160 per km². Among the population, there are about 3,60,154 Scheduled Castes 5,58,958 Scheduled Tribes. About 80% of the population lives in rural areas. The sex ratio is 974 females for every 1000 male population in rural areas and about 977 females for 1000 males in the urban areas. The tradition and culture of Khammam district is a conglomeration of mosaic culture representing Hindus, Muslims and Christians. There are sizable number of scheduled tribes, who constitute an integral part of Hindu community. Among the tribes, Koyas and Lambadas are in domination. These tribal people still follow their own traditions and customs in their social life. Khammam district is the largest tribal populated district in Andhra Pradesh followed by Adilabad district.
Tribals : The Khammam district has a tribal population of 5,58,958, which is about 13.29% of the total tribal population of the state, Andhra Pradesh.
Koyas : The meaning of Koya is “a good person living on the hills”. Koyas constitute about 80% of the tribal population living in the Dandakaranya forests. In general, Koyas are short statured, lean and rather diffident. They speak koya language which does not have any script. They do not own much property and the crime rate in Koya communities is generally low. Alcohol consumption is permitted among both men and women. Koyas are an ethnic tribe found in Andhra Pradesh state and confined to Godavari valley and neighbouring Malkangiri District of Orisha State and Chhatisgarh State. They are found mostly in Bhadrachalam division of Khammam District in Andhrapradesh. They speak a dialect that is part of Gond language considered to be a major Dravidian group of languages. It more or less resembles the Telugu (the official language of Andhrapradesh) language.
Livelihood : The livelihood of Koyas is mainly agriculture though they would do Podu, (i.e. slash and burn technique) and collect the local forest produce like tamarind, emblics, honey, Palm kernels and tender tamarind leaves. Even some of these things are a rare sight nowadays, as there is large scale deforestation. Now they no longer carry out Podu, as the forest cover has already dwindled. Most of these tribes own small land holdings and thanks to ITDA (Integrated Tribal Development Agency) Bhadrachalam; they started using modern methods in agriculture like the usage of HYV seeds, Pesticides, Fertilizers and Power sprays. So they gave up their traditional organic forming and went modern. With the passage of time, the wildlife habitat dwindled and the productivity of the land decreased due to deforestation and non-tribal settlements. The ethnic agriculture has given place for modern agriculture, with high-yielding varieties replacing the traditional ones. The culture and tradition of Koyas suffered a great deal in the process of modernization. They domesticate animals like pigs, oxen, goat and birds like fowls. These animals constitute the food items which give them protein.
Language : The people of Koya tribe speak a language called Koi or Koya. Though the origins of Koya community is still obscure they are said to be the members of the great Gond community of Dravidian family. So Koya language is considered to be a dialect of gond language. Even in the Koi language there are some variants. A small town called Chintoor not far away from Bhadrachalam, is considered to be the linguistic centre of Koi language and the language spoken by them is considered to be the finest variant of the language. Koi language does not have many words. Its Lexicon is very much limited. The most important reason might be the Koyas, being primitive tribes were mainly hunter gatherers. Their day to day activities were very limited. They were in no need of a sophisticated language like English which has Lakhs of words and can support the formation of a wide range of expressions. Since these tribes lead a very simple and austere life they have very small number of their own genuine, native words. So there is a strong link between the language they speak and their life style. For example being hunter gatherers they have their own words to refer to trees, animals, weapons, food etc. This language does not have a script and Telugu script is commonly used to write this language. A government sponsored programme called Rajeev Vidya Mission has prepared some text books from class I to class V with the intention of imparting education to tribal children in their mother tongue. All those books are written in Telugu script.
Konda Reddis : Konda Reddis live in thick forests on high mountains. They speak an ancient dialect of Telugu. In general, they are reserved in behaviour and often do not trust people from the plains. They are good craftsmen, who use Bamboo to make a variety of items.
Lambadas : They are also called Sugalies or Banjaras. They are often dressed in colourful clothes which are studded with mirrors, beads and other decorative items. Men wear head turbans and many sport thick moustache.In entire Khammam District Manga puram is the largest gram panchayathi which is having cent percent lambadas.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.