Lawngtlai district is one of the eight districts of Mizoram state in India. The district is bounded on the north by Lunglei district, on the west by Bangladesh, on the south by Myanmar and on the east by Saiha district. The district occupies an area of 2557.10 km². Lawngtlai town is the administrative headquarters of the district.
The district shares its boundaries with Lunglei and Saiha districts on the north and south respectively. The inhabitants of the district are mainly the ethnic groups of tribals like Lai and Chakma, who are among the minor tribal communities of Mizoram. The main occupation is cultivation and the rural population largely depends on agriculture for their subsistence. The physical feature is mainly hilly except with long narrow strip of low-lying area along the western side of Chamdur Valley.
History of Lawngtlai district,Mizoram
Prior to the arrival of the British in the late 19th century, the area which became Lawngtlai District was ruled by local chieftains, whose zones of control were often a single village or small group of villages.In 1888 the chief of the Fungkah village attacked a British surveying team and killed four men including a Lt. Stewart. The following year the British sent in a punitive expedition to pacify the area. What became Lawngtlai District was incorporated into the South Lushai Hills and administered by the lieutenant governor of Bengal.In 1898 North and South Lushai Hills were merged into the Lushai Hills District and were administered as part of Assam. In 1919, the Lushai Hills, along with some of the other hill districts, were declared “Backward Tracts” under the Government of India Act, and in 1935 this denomination was changed to “excluded area”. In 1952 the creation of the Lushai Hills Autonomous District Council removed the last power of the local chieftains. The area became part of Mizoram when the Union Territory of Mizoram was created in 1972, and remained a part of it when the state was created in 1987.Originally part of Chhimtuipui District, the area that became Lawngtlai District was divided into two rural development blocks: the Lawngtlai Rural Development Block with headquarters at Lawngtlai and the Chawngte Rural Development Block with headquarters at Chawngte.Lawngtlai district became a separate district on 11 November 1998.
Economy in Lawngtlai district,Mizoram
One-third of the total inhabitants of Lawngtlai district rely entirely on agriculture, which is mostly based on traditional method of shifting cultivation. Only a small fraction of urban population is involved in permanent employment, such as state government service, bank and schools, and few engaged in small-scale business. The economic status of the district is in fact the lowest among the districts in Mizoram.
Unlike the most parts of India, where districts are divided into tehsils (talukas), in Lanwgtlai district there are two Autonomous District Councils, the Lai Autonomous District Council (LADC) and the Chakma Autonomous District Council (CADC) with their headquarters at Lawngtlai and Chawngte (Kamalanagar) respectively. Having separate autonomous legislative, executive and judicial functions, the Lais and the Chakmas administer their respective autonomous regions in accordance with the provisions of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India.
This district is divided into four Rural Development Blocks:
The town of Lawngtlai is the headquarters for the district. The names of the headquarters of the Rural Development Blocks are same as them. There are 158 villages in Lawngtlai district.
There are 3 Legislative Assembly constituencies in this district, 36-Tuichawng (ST), 37-Lawngtlai West (ST) and 38-Lawngtlai East (ST).
Flora and fauna of Lawngtlai district,Mizoram
Lawngtlai district is situated within the tropical belt. It usually received high annual rainfall during the month from May up to September. In this region the tropical wet evergreen, mixed deciduous forest and wild banana forests are found. The western part of the region is covered by a thick virgin forest. Host of skima wallichi, Banyan tree, Gulmohar tree, Gamari, Jarus, Champa and several kinds of bamboos, climbers of different kinds and many kinds of wild fruits are found in this area. Several kinds of plants and herbs which are good for making herbal medicines are also found in this district.
In 1997 Lawngtlai district became home to the Ngengpui Wildlife Sanctuary, which has an area of 110 km2 (42.5 sq mi).