ADD SOME TEXT THROUGH CUSTOMIZER
ADD SOME TEXT THROUGH CUSTOMIZER

Bhagalpur district,Bihar

Bhagalpur is a city and a municipal corporation situated on the southern bank of the Ganges in the Indian state of Bihar. It is the third largest city in Bihar and the largest city in eastern Bihar. It is one of the major educational, commercial and political centers of Eastern India. It covers an area of 110 square kilometres (42 sq mi) and is the administrative headquarters of the Bhagalpur district and Bhagalpur division. The town is situated 220 kilometres (140 mi) east of Patna and 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of Munger.Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

The city was referred to as one of the largest trade centers in Eastern India by the 7th century Chinese travellers Xuanzang and Faxian. At that time the city had a large harbour at Champanagar, now known as Champanala on the Ganges river, which flows on the western boundary of the present city near Nathnagar. Many boats and coins of the Middle and Far East were found during archaeological excavations carried out in the 1970s. The silk industry in the city is hundreds of years old producing Tussar Silk and Tussar Saree, and Bhagalpur is known in India as the “Silk City”. The Silk Institute and Agricultural University are located in the city. Other education facilities include the Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur College of Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, T.N.B.Law College and Homeopathic colleges. In 2010, Bihar Agricultural University was set up in Sabour, Bhagalpur.Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

The Gangetic plains surrounding the city are very fertile and the main crops include rice, wheat, maize, barley, and oilseeds. The economy of Bhagalpur is dependent mainly on agriculture and small businesses. The river is home to the Gangetic dolphin, the National Aquatic Animal of India,which is found in Ganges Basin and the Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary is established near the town.Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

History

The name Bhagalpur is etymologically derived from Bhagdatpuram (meaning city of Good Luck), as it was called during the flourishing period of the Anga Kingdom. Bhagdatpuram, as per Hindu mythological texts, was the place where the gods (devtas) and demons (asuras) churned the ocean to procure elixir (amrit). It is believed that the serpent, Vasuki, offered to serve as the rope for the churning. An impression of the coil is faintly visible on Mount Mandara, a granite hill situated along the national highway between Bhagalpur and Dumka. It is believed that Panchjanya, the conch shell used in the Mahabharata was discovered here in the “Shankh Kund”. The Puranas also refer to this hill. It is said that Vishnu covered the demon Madhu under the hill after defeating him to death. Kalidasa’s Kumarasambhava refers to foot marks of Vishnu on the slopes of Mount Mandara. The hill is replete with relics of bygone ages. Apart from inscriptions and statues, there are numerous rock cut sculptures depicting various images of Hindu Gods. The hill is equally revered by the Jains who believe that their 12th Tirthankara attained nirvana at the summit. The area around Mandara Hill is laced with a landscape of extraordinary splendour. The 800 feet high granite hill is a sight to see during daylight. It is a popular picnic spot for people living in the area.

The religious festival of “Vish-hari Puja” or “the worship of the Snake Queen” or “Manasa Devi, said to be a daughter of lord Shiva and Queen of Snakes” traces its roots back hundreds of years and is still celebrated every year with thousands of believers and snake charmers offering milk to the Nag (the Snake King) and Nagin (The Snake Queen).

References to Bhagalpur can be found in Hindu epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata where Bhagalpur has been described as the kingdom of Anga. Ancient cave sculptures from Emperor Ashoka’s reign, from 274 to 232 BC are found in the neighbourhood and at Sultangunj, 20 km west of Bhagalpur, a temple from the Gupta period still exists in Bhagalpur. The tomb of Suja, brother of Moghul emperor Aurangzeb, in the heart of the town is reminiscent of the town’s association with the Mughal period.

The ruins of ancient Vikramashila Mahavihara are located 44 km east of Bhagalpur. The royal university ranks next to Nalanda, and owes its origin to Dharmapala, the devout Pala king who called himself Paramasaugata (chief worshipper of the Buddha) and was a great patron of Mahayana Buddhism. It was the medieval center for the conservation and propagation of Buddhist education, established at the end of the 8th century.

Bhagalpur formed a part of the ancient Sanskrit kingdom of Anga, said to be ruled by king Karna of Mahabharata who was well known for his charity. In later times it was included in the powerful Hindu kingdom of Magadha, or Behar, and in the 7th century it was an independent state, with the city of Champa as its capital. Afterwards it formed a part of the Mohammedan Kingdom of Gaur, West Bengal, and was subsequently subjugated by Akbar, who declared it to be a part of the Delhi empire. Bhagalpur passed to the East India Company by the grant of the emperor Shah Alam II in 1765. Bhagalpur was one of the most important trade centers in Bengal Presidency during the British rule in India.Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

The communal violence that broke out in and around Bhagalpur in October 1989 continued for about two months, during which nearly 1200 lives were lost. Since then, it has emerged as one of the most economically and socially stable districts of Bihar.

The Jain Temple at Nathnagar is an important pilgrimage centre for Jains. Budha Nath Temple is an ancient Shiva Temple on the bank of Ganges. Sultanganj (about 25 km West) is an important religious center for Hindus from where holy water of Ganges is carried and offered at Deoghar. Bhagalpur also has the shrine of Shawaz Rahmat-ulla near Bhagalpur Railway Station and Centre of Tablighi Jamat at Champanagar.Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

Main sights
Vikrasmshila Mahavidhyalaya

Vikramashila Mahavihara, 38 km from Bhagalpur ranks next to Nalanda and owes its origin to Dharmapala (770-810 AD), the devout Pala king who loved to call himself Paramasaugata (chief worshipper of the Buddha)and was a great patron of Mahayana Buddhism. Dharmapala was impressed by two things which prompted him to establish Vikramshila. Firstly, the rocky hillock anchored around the confluence of Kosi and Ganga at Vateshwarasthan was not only a scenic attraction but a popular tantric site as evident from the presence of a Kali temple (instead of Parvati’s) in front of Shiva temple, besides various other caves and rock cut sculptures dating back to the 6th or 7th century AD. Secondly, the place was associated with pilgrimage due to Uttarvahini Ganga which drew large crowds during Varsavardhana. Unlike Nalanda, sources of information on Vikramashila is confined to Tibetan texts and they make us believe that Dharmapala in his earlier birth was an accomplished acharya, Kampilya, who had attained siddhi or perfection in Mahayana mudra mysticism here and was determined to build a monastery one day.

Mandar Parvat (Hill)

Mandar Parvat (Hill) is roughly 700 feet high. It is situated about 30 miles south of the Bhagalpur town in Bihar. There is an eastern railway line connecting Bhagalpur with Mandar Hill. Mandar Hill station is about three miles from Mandar Hill. There is also an all- weather road that connects Bhagalpur with Dumka.

Amrit Manthana or Samudra manthan which suggests that the hill was used by the gods to churn the ocean to procure amrit. The serpent, Basukinaga offered to serve as the rope and has left behind an impression of the coil on the granite hill.It is believed that panchjanya, the conch shell used in Mahabharat War was discovered here in the Sank kund.Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

The puranas refer to various sacred places on the hill which is also believed to be the abode of Vishnu under the title of Madhusudana or the destroyer of a demon called Madhu who was killed by Vishnu and then covered by the Mandar hill. Kalidasa’s Kumārasambhava refers to foot marks of Vishnu on the slopes of Mandar.Besides inscriptions and statues there are numerous rock cut sculptures depicting various Brahmanical images.Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

The hill is equally revered by the Jains who believe that their 12th Tirthankara attained nirvana here on the summit of the hill.Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

At the salvation place on Mandar Hill, a grand Jain Mandar Hill Temple is erected. A pair of feet images (about 3000 years old) are installed there.There is a place where Lord Vasupujya attained Kevalgyan (supernatural knowledge) near the place of salvation. Three pairs of ancient feet images are installed here.Near the place of salvation, a beautiful cave temple is viewable with 5-feet-tall standing idol.Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

Kuppa Ghat

The word ‘Kuppa’ means a tunnel or cave, and “Ghat” means place located on a river-bank. Accordingly, there is a cave at Kuppaghat which has been rendered famous and immortalized by Maharshi Mehi Paramhans, the legendary exponent of Santmat.Kuppa Ghat is a place located on the banks of the holy river Ganges at Bhagalpur, Bihar, India. Maharshi Mehi Ashram, Kuppaghat, Bhagalpur has, over the years, grown into a sacred pilgrimage for millions of followers of Santmat from India and abroad. The auspicious occasions of the birth anniversary of Maharshi Mehi Paramhans and Maharshi Santsevi Paramhans, the successor of Maharshi Mehi, who also made this ashram his main camp and residence, and Guru Purnima the ashram draw lakhs of devotees presenting a celebratory environment impregnated with piety. Maharshi Mehi practiced surat shabd yoga or the Yoga of Inner Sound for several months here in this cave and later constructed his ashram also; several yogis or spiritual aspirants can still be seen practicing the Yoga of Inner Light & Sound in this dark cave completely insulated from the din & bustle and brightness of the outside world.Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

Maharshi Mehi Ashram blossomed under his dynamic leadership to become the national headquarters of Akhil Bharatiya Santmat-Satsang. It has an aesthetically laid out garden and orchard beautifully punctuated with sculptures, paintings and quotes having spiritual significance like a cottage showing Lord Rama visiting great female devotee Shabri and killing of Jatayu, the vulture, at the hands of the demon king Ravana.Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

According to some unconfirmed accounts, Lord Gautama Buddha is also said to have lived in this cave in one of his previous births.

Maharshi Mehi Ashram, Kuppaghat, Bhagalpur has, over the years, grown into a sacred pilgrimage for millions of followers of Santmat from India and abroad. The auspicious occasions of the birth anniversary of Maharshi Mehi Paramhans and Maharshi Santsevi Paramhans, the successor of Maharshi Mehi, who also made this ashram his main camp and residence, and Guru Purnima the ashram draw lakhs of devotees presenting a celebratory environment impregnated with piety.Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

Ajgaivinath Temple

Ajgaivinath Temple is the one of the famous Indian Hindu Temple dedicated to Lord Shiva situated in Sultanganj.It is believed that the deity of the temple is Swayambhu. Sultanganj is a place of great antiquity. It has been traditionally associated with Jahnu sage, whose ashram was a center of learning and culture. Muni Ashram Jahnu in the rock protruding into the bed of the Ganges. Now the site has Ajgaivinath Shiva temple, also known as Gaibinath Mahadeo. The story is that of the Ganges on their way to the ocean in the Muni hismeditation interrupted by the fever of its currents. The wise man swallowed the river in one stroke. Bhagiratha Muni intervened and once again let her out by making an incision in the thigh. That is why the Ganges also called Jahnavi.

Sultanganj traditionally been part of a large state Anga. On the Day of the Mahabharata, Karna, the brother of the sixth five Pandavas, ruled Anga. The capital of Anga was Champa. This Champanagar Champa is located three miles west of Bhagalpur. King Karna had castles at Champa (currently Champanagar) and Jahnugiri (modern Sultanganj). Currently Champanagar, Karna the castle site, is well known as Karnagarh. Karnagarh is practically part of the town of Bhagalpur.

Budhanath TempleBhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

Spread over three acres Budhanath temple is located on the banks of the ‘Uttarvahini Ganga'(flowing from south to north) River. Being one of the oldest temple in the region it witnesses in flux of devotees throughout the year. It is about twenty minutes from the main town. Reference of Baba Budhanath can be found in Shiva Purana as Baba Bal Vridheshwarnath. Also, this name has been stated in the first segment of the eighth segments of Shiva Purana. The lingam of this place of worship is self-incarnated nevertheless as to when it come into being is still unknown. Idol of Ma Bhavani can be seen beside the Shivalinga or Lingam.Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

Shri Champapur Digamber Jain TempleBhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

Champapur is an ancient and historic Teerth Kshetra of Jainsim. Champapur is the place where all the five Kalyanaks i.e., Garbha, Janam, Tapa, KevalGyan and Moksha Kalyanak of Bhagwan Vasupujya, the 12th Jain Teerthankar, have taken place. The Champapur was the capital of ‘Anga Janpada’. The Anga Janpada was one of the 52 Janapada established by Adi Teerthankar Bhagwan Rishabh Deo. Champapur also existed as Mahajanapada among the six Mahajanapadas during the time of Bhagwan Mahavira Swami.Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams

The three Chaturmas of Bhagwan Mahavira Swami during his Dikshakal, religious propagation centre of Anga-Banga-Magadh-Vaishali, test of modesty of Sati Subhadra and Anantmati, Aahardan to Bhagwan Mahaveer Swami by Sati Chandan Bala have taken place in Champapur. Champapur is also related to great stories of ‘origin of Harivansha, Shripal-Mainasundari, Shri Dharma Ghosh Muni, King Karna of Mahabharata, King Mudrak and great architect Vishvakarman’.

The main temple of Champapur Siddha Kshetra is quite ancient (about 2500 years). This temple being symbolic of ‘Panch Kalyanaka’ is adorned with 5 altars, magnificent spire and 2 columns of fame. It is said that there were 4 ‘Columns of Fame (Keerti Stambha)’ which existed in four corners of the campus of the temple. Later on the 2 out of 4 were destroyed in the earthquake of year 1934 & repair (Jirnoddhar) of other 2 columns was done in 1938. The ‘Columns of Fame’ are about 2200 years ancient.In 2014, the tallest statue of Bhagwan Vasupujya was built and donated by Smt Sona Devi Sethi Charitable Trust based at Dimapur, Nagaland. The statue is 31 feet in height and the stone for the statue was brought all the way for Karnataka. The Panch Kalyanak Pratishtha Mahotsav of the statue was done from 27 February 2014 to 3 March 2014. Hundreds of thousands of Jain devotees from all across the world come and visit Champapur throughout the year. This majestic addition to the Champapur Digambar Jain Temple is attracting visitors from other beliefs as well.

Bhagalpur district, Bihar Study material for government exams