Muzaffarpur District is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India, and Muzaffarpur city is the administrative headquarters of this district. Muzaffarpur district is a part of Tirhut Division (Tirhut).
Muzaffarpur is one of the largest commercial and educational center in North Bihar. It is famous for litchis which is a fruit famous for its juicy taste. Muzaffarpur is an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. The district headquarters are located at Muzaffarpur. The
district occupies an area of 3173 km² and has a population of 3,743,836 (as of 2001). Mark Twain, while on way to Kathmandu, stayed in the local Muzaffarpur Club and relished this beautiful East Indian City.
As of 2011 it is the third most populous district of Bihar (out of 38), after Patna and East Champaran
Muzaffarpur district was created in 1875 for the sake of administrative convenience by splitting up the earlier district of Tirhut. Thepresent district of Muzaffarpur came to its existence in the 18th century and named after Muzaffar Khan, an Amil (Revenue Officer) under British Dynasty. Purbi Champaran and Sitamarhi districts on North, on the South Vaishali and Saran districts, on the East Darbhanga and Samastipur districts and on the West Saran and Gopalganj districts surround Muzaffarpur.According to the Ramayana, King Janaka, the father of Sita ruled Videha, which is a traditional name for the entire region including eastern Nepal and northern Bihar. Sitamarhi, a town in this region, ascribes to the Hindu mythological belief where Sita sprang to life out of an earthen
As per recorded history the Vajji Republic was a confederation of eight clans of which the Licchavis were the most powerful and influential. Even the powerful kingdom of Magadha had to conclude matrimonial alliances in 519 B.C. with the neighboring estates of the Licchavis.
Ajatashatru invaded Vaishali and extended his sway over Tirhut. It was at this time that Pataliputra (the modern Patna) was founded at the village Patali on the banks of the sacred river Ganges and Ajatashatru built an invincible fortress to keep vigil over the Licchavis on the other side
of the river.
Ambarati, 40 km from Muzaffarpur is believed to be the village home of Amrapali, the famous Royal court dancer of Vaishali. Vaishali, a center of religious renaissance, Baso Kund, the birthplace of Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism and a contemporary of Gautama Buddha, continue to attract visitors from across the international borders.
From the visit of the Chinese traveller Xuanzang’s till the rise of the Pala Empire, Muzaffarpur was under the control of Harsha Vardhan. After 647 A.D. the district passed on to the local chiefs. In the 8th century A.D. the Pala kings continued to have their hold over Tirhut until 1019 A.D.
Later Chedi kings of Central India ruled till they were replaced by the Sena dynasty in the 11th century.
Between 1210 & 1226, Ghias-u-ddin Iwaz, the ruler of Bengal, was the first Muslim invader of Tirhut. He, however, could not succeed in conquering the kingdom but extorted tributes. It was in 1323 that Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq established his control over the district. The history of Muzaffarpur will remain incomplete without a reference to the Simraon dynasty (in the north-east part of Champaran) and its founder Nanyupa Deva who extended his power over the whole of Mithila and Nepal.
During the regime of Harasimha Deva, the last king of the dynasty, Tughlaq Shah invaded Tirhut in 1323 and gained control over the territory. Tughlaq Shah handed over the management of Tirhut to one Kameshwar Thakur. Thus, the sovereign power of Tirhut passed from the Hindu chiefs to
the Muslims but the Hindu chief continued to enjoy complete autonomy.
By the end of the 14th century, the whole of North Bihar including Tirhut passed on to the Rajahs of Jaunpur and remained under their control for nearly a century until defeated by Sikandar Lodi of Delhi. Meanwhile, Alauddin Husain Shah, the Nawab of Bengal, had become so powerful that he exercised his control over large tracts including Tirhut.
The emperor of Delhi advanced against Hussain Shah in 1499 and got control over Tirhut after defeating its Raja. The power of the Nawabs of Bengal began to wane and with the decline and fall of Mahmood Shah, north Bihar including Tirhut formed a part of the mighty Mughal Empire. Though Muzaffarpur with the entire north Bihar had been annexed yet the petty powerful chieftains continued to exercise effective control over this area till the days of Daud Khan, the Nawab of Bengal. Daud Khan had his stronghold at Patna and Hajipur and after his fall a separate Subah of Bihar was constituted under the Mughal Empire and Tirhut formed a part of it.
The East India Company, after the Battle of Buxar in 1764, controlled over whole of Bihar. The success of the insurgents at Delhi in 1857 caused grave concern to the English inhabitants in this district and revolutionary fervor began to permeate the entire district.
In 1908 the young Bengali revolutionary, Khudi Ram Bose, an 18-year-old, was hanged for throwing the bomb at the carriage of Pringle Kennedy who was actually mistaken for Kingsford, the District Judge of Muzaffarpur. After Indian independence in 1947, a memorial to this Bose was constructed at Muzaffarpur. Antarrashtriya Bajjika Parishad in its XII Antarrashtriya Bajjika Sammelan on October 2, 2004, passed unanimously a resolution to rename the city as Khudirampur in presence of local MLA Bijendra Choudhary and MLC Devesh Chandra Thakur. However, such a resolution has only a symbolic significance as the change of name requires administrative approval.
The visit of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi to Muzaffarpur district in December 1920 and again in January 1927 had political effect in arousing the people and the district continued to play a prominent role in the country’s freedom struggle.
The significance of Muzaffarpur in Indian civilization arises out of its position on the frontier line between two most spiritual influences and is a meeting place of Hindu and Islamic culture and thoughts. Muzaffarpur fostered political leaders and statesmen alike among whom were Rajendra Prasad, George Fernandes and Acharya Kriplani etc. The language of the region is Bajjika as per George Grierson, some people call it Vajjika, derived from the language of Vajji republic.
In 1972 both Sitamarhi and Vaishali districts were split from Muzaffarpur.
The city was a major centre of anti-emergency movement of Jai Prakash Narayan in the late-1970s. The politics of the city in the 1980s was greatly influenced by the movement as in the rest of Bihar. The significance of caste in politics gained prominence in the 1990s and 2000s when the
party of Lalu Prasad gained prominence in the state.