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Coimbatore district,Tamilnadu

Coimbatore, also known as Kovai [koːʋəj], is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the banks of the Noyyal River surrounded by the Western Ghats, it is the second largest city in the state after Chennai and the sixteenth largest urban agglomeration in India. It is administered by the Coimbatore Municipal Corporation and is the administrative capital of Coimbatore district. It is one of the fastest growing tier-II cities in India and a major hub for textiles, industries, commerce, education, information technology, healthcare and manufacturing in Tamil Nadu. It is often referred to as the “Manchester of South India” due to its cotton production and textile industries. Coimbatore is also referred to as the “Pump City” and it supplies nearly half of India’s requirements of motors and pumps. The city is one of the largest exporters of jewellery, wet grinders, poultry and auto components with “Coimbatore Wet Grinder” and “Kovai Cora Cotton” recognized as Geographical Indications by the Government of India.

Coimbatore was part of Kongu Nadu during the Sangam period between c. 1st and the 4th centuries CE and was ruled by the Cheras as it served as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap, the principal trade route between the west coast and Tamil Nadu. Coimbatore was located along the ancient Roman trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu in South India. The medieval Cholas conquered the Kongu Nadu in the 10th century CE. The region was ruled by Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century followed by the Nayaks who introduced the Palayakkarar system under which Kongu nadu region was divided into 24 Palayams. In the later part of the 18th century, the Coimbatore region came under the Kingdom of Mysore and following the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Anglo-Mysore Wars, the British East India Company annexed Coimbatore to the Madras Presidency in 1799. The Coimbatore region played a prominent role in the Second Poligar War (1801) when it was the area of operations of Dheeran Chinnamalai.

In 1804, Coimbatore was established as the capital of the newly formed Coimbatore district and in 1866 it was accorded municipality status with Robert Stanes as its Chairman. The city experienced a textile boom in the early 19th century due to the decline of the cotton industry in Mumbai. Post independence, Coimbatore has seen rapid growth due to industrialisation. Coimbatore was ranked the best emerging city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey. The city was ranked fourth among Indian cities in investment climate by Confederation of Indian Industry and 17th among the top global outsourcing cities by Tholons. Coimbatore has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s flagship Smart Cities Mission.

History

The region around Coimbatore was ruled by the Sangam Cheras dyansty and it served as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap, the principal trade route between the west coast and Tamil Nadu.The Kossar tribe mentioned in the second century CE Tamil epic Silappathikaram and other poems in Sangam literature is associated with the Coimbatore region (Kongu Nadu).The region was in the middle of a Roman trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu. The medieval Cholas conquered the Kongu Nadu in the 10th century CE. A Chola highway called Rajakesari Peruvazhi ran through the region.Much of Tamil Nadu came under the rule of the Vijayanagara Empire by the 15th century. In the 1550s, Madurai Nayaks who were the military governors of the Vijaynagara Empire took control of the region. After the Vijayanagara Empire fell in the 17th century, the Madurai Nayaks established their state as an independent kingdom. The Nayaks introduced the Palayakkarar system under which Kongu nadu region was divided into 24 Palayams.

In the later part of the 18th century, the region came under the Kingdom of Mysore, following a series of wars with the Madurai Nayak Dynasty. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Anglo-Mysore Wars, the British East India Company annexed Coimbatore to the Madras Presidency in 1799. The Coimbatore region played a prominent role in the Second Poligar War (1801) when it was the area of operations of Dheeran Chinnamalai.

In 1804, Coimbatore district was newly carved out and Coimbatore was established as the capital of the newly formed district. The district comprised present-day districts of Erode, Tiruppur, Niligirs and parts of Karur, Palakkad in Kerala, Chamarajanagar in Karnataka. Nilgiris district was segregated in 1868. The region was hard hit during the Great Famine of 1876–78 resulting in nearly 200,000 famine related fatalities. The city experienced an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.0 on the Richter scale on February 8, 1900.The first three decades of the 20th century saw nearly 20,000 plague-related deaths and an acute water shortage.

The district experienced an economical boom in the 1920s and 1930s due to the decline of the cotton industry in Mumbai.The region played a significant role in the Indian independence movement. Post independence, the district has seen rapid growth due to industrialisation.

In 1927, Karur was separated from the district and merged with Tiruchirapalli district. In 1956, Kollegal taluk was transferred to Mysore State. In 1979, Periyar district (Erode district) was formed after bifurication of six taluks of Bhavani, Gobichettipalayam, Sathyamangalam, Erode, Perundurai and Dharapuram. Further, Tiruppur district was formed in 2012 comprising parts of Erode district and Coimbatore district.

Places of interest

Valparai is about 65 km from Pollachi and is situated at an altitude of 3500 feet above the sea level. Valparai is famous for it tea plantations. Anaimalai Wildlife Sanctuary is about 90 km from Coimbatore and is situated at an altitude of 1,400 meters in the Western Ghats near Pollachi. The area of the sanctuary is 958 km2. Top Slip is a point located at an altitude of about 800 feet in the Anaimalai mountain range. Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary is located in a valley between the Anaimalai Hills range of Tamil Nadu and the Nelliampathi Hills range of Kerala. The areas hilly and rocky, drained by several rivers, including the Parambikulam, the Sholayar and the Thekkady. Thickly forested with stands of bamboo, sandalwood, rosewood and teak, the sanctuary has some marshy land and scattered patches of grassland.

Parambikulam – Aliyar dam project consists of a series of dams interconnected by tunnels and canals at various elevations to harness the Parambikulam, Aliyar, Nirar, Sholiyar, Thunkadavu, Thenkkadi and Palar rivers, laid for irrigation and power generation. It is located in the Anaimalai Hills range. Seven streams-five flowing westward and two towards the east- have been dammed and their reservoirs interlinked by tunnels. The water is ultimately delivered to the drought-prone areas in the Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu and the Chittur area of Kerala. Government of Tamil Nadu promotes eco Tourism in Karamadi forest range. The spot is located at an easy destination reachable for people from Coimbatore. It is located near Pillur in Baralikkadu of Karamadai range in Coimbatore district. The way is a hilly terrain enriched with green vegetation with a pleasant climate providing many view points to have awe for these scenes.