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Faizabad District,Uttar Pradesh

Faizabad (Old British Colonial name: Fyzabad), the old capital of Awadh, is the headquarters of Faizabad District and Faizabad division as well. It is a joint municipal board with Ayodhya in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India, situated on the banks of river Ghaghra (locally known as Saryu). It was the first capital of the Nawabs of Awadh and has monuments built by the Nawabs, like the Tomb of Bahu Begum, Gulab Bari.

The Legend of Awadh, Umrao Jaan ‘Ada’, was born in Faizabad (her childhood name was Ameeran). Another legend and Hindi writer Radhika Prasad Tripathi was from this city. Akhtaribai Faizabadi, also known as Begum Akhtar, was born in Faizabad. She was a classical singer who performed Urdu ghazals, dadras, thumris, etc. Among other notable people from Faizabad are Mir Babar Ali Anis, a nineteenth-century writer of Marsiya (elegies in Urdu) and Brij Narayan Chakbast, another nineteenth-century Urdu poet. Chakbast is credited to have translated the Ramayana into Urdu for the first time.

History

The earliest reference made to Faizabad is said to be in the Ramayana, in which the city is referred to as Saket, the mythical private estate of King Dashrath, father of Lord Ram but the other sources indicate that Saket, which means Heaven in Sanskrit, is the ancient name of holy city of Ayodhya not Faizabad. However, more accurately, the reference is found in Medieval and Modern history, when Nawab Saadat Ali Khan, Burhan-ul-Mulk was given the charge of the Subah of Awadh around 1722 by the Mughal Court. Nawab Sa’adat Khan made the first settlements along the banks of Ghaghra with a cantonment consisting of a fortress and mud barracks. Due to these temporary dwellings, Faizabad was first known as ‘Bangla’ (implied meaning- hutment).
Establishment of Princely state of Avadh

Avadh, a princely state of India, was established around 1722 AD with Faizabad as its capital and Saadat Ali Khan I as first Nawab and progenitor of Nawabs of Awadh He made his own palace near Ayodhya, and renamed the city of Saket to Faizabad, which became the capital of the new government. Due to his management policy state’s income rose from Rs.7 to 20 million.

Faizabad was developed later on by Saadat Ali Khan’s second successor, Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula into a full-fledged capital city, with gardens, palaces, markets, roads and other infrastructure. Under Shuja-ud-Daula’s reign Faizabad achieved its culmination as an important centre of trade and commerce in northern India and attracted travellers, writers, merchants, artists and courtesans from all over Europe and Asia. Shuja-ud-Daula also built a fortress on the banks of Saryu after he lost the battle of Buxar in 1764. however, this fort now is nothing more than a hummock, just an edict remains which is pictured here.

Faizabad was also a centre of one of many battles of the Mutiny of 1857. A detailed history of Faizabad can be read in ‘Tareekh-e-Farahbaksh’, written by Munshi Mohd. Faiz Baksh, (after whom Faizabad is named) a courtier in the Shuja-ud-Daula’s court. This book has been translated into English by Hamid Afaq Qureshi as ‘Memoirs of Faizabad’. Faizabad also finds a prominent and detailed mention in ‘Guzishta Lakhnau’ written by Maulvi Abdul Halim ‘Sharar’. The third nawab of Awadh, Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula, shifted the Capital of Avadh to Lucknow in 1775 after his terms with his mother became sour.

Saadat Khan, the first Nawab of Awadh, laid the foundation of Faizabad at the outskirt of ancient city of Ayodhya. Faizabad developed as a township during the reign of Safdar Jang, the second nawab of Avadh (1739–54), who made it his military headquarters while his successor Shuja-ud-daula made it full-fledged capital city. Suja-ud-daula, the third Nawab of Awadh, settled at Faizabad after 1764 and built a fort known as Chhota Calcutta, now in ruins. In 1765 he built the Chowk and Tirpaulia and subsequently laid out the Anguribagh and Motibagh to the south of it, Asafbagh and Bulandbagh to the west of the city. During the reign of Shuja-Ud-Daula, Faizabad attained such a prosperity which it never saw again. The Nawabs graced Faziabad with several beautiful buildings, notable among them being the Gulab Bari, Moti Mahal and the tomb of Bahu Begum. Gulab Bari is a striking building of fine properties, standing in a garden surrounded by a wall, approachable through two large gateways. These buildings are particularly interesting for their assimilative architectural styles. Shuja-ud-daula’s wife was the well known Bahu Begum, who married the Nawab in 1743 and continued to reside in Faizabad, her residence being the Moti-Mahal. Close by at Jawaharbagh lies her Maqbara, where she was buried after her death in 1816. It is considered to be one of the finest buildings of its kind in Avadh, which was built at the cost of three lakh rupees by her chief advisor Darab Ali Khan. A fine view of the city is obtainable from top of the begum’s tomb. Bahu Begum was a woman of great distinction and rank, bearing dignity. Most of the Muslim buildings of Faizabad are attributed to her. From the date of Bahu Begum’s death in 1815 till the annexation of Avadh, the city of Faizabad gradually fell into decay. The glory of Faizabad finally eclipsed with the shifting of capital from Faizabad to Lucknow by Nawab Asaf-ud-daula.

Places to see
Gulab Bari: Literally meaning ‘Garden of Roses’, the tomb of Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula (third Nawab of Awadh), this place has a good collection of roses of various varieties set by the sides of water fountains. Gulab Bari also houses a maqbara (Mausoleum) of Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula in the campus.
Bahu Begum ka Maqbara: (The Mausoleum of the Queen Bride) the memorial built for queen of Nawab Shujah-ud-Daulah, Unmatuzzohra Bano Begum. Its one of the tallest buildings in Faizabad and is a beautiful example of non-mughal Muslim architecture. Sadly, this beautiful monument is a victim of neglect and is crumbling.
Military Temple: (The Dogra Regimental Centre/ Corps of Military Police CMP Temple) Located in cantonment area, this temple is beautifully built and the cleanlines and the pollution free environment is just spiritual thing.
Guptar Ghat: the Ghat (Jetty) where Lord Rama is believed to have taken ‘jal samadhi’ (leaving the earth for ‘Baikuntha’, the divine abode of Lord Vishnu, by drowning himself). It has picturesque view of the saryu river and its green banks and has several ancient temples. The view of sunset from Guptar Ghat is breathtaking. a boat ride is a must while visiting this place.
Company Gardens : Adjoining Guptar Ghat, on the banks of River Saryu, is Company Gardens, a botanical garden built during British Rule. it has a well maintained, sprawling garden set amidst lush greenery, far away from the hustle and bustle of the town. It also has an orchard spread over acres. Plants and Trees can also be bought here. The remains of the fort built by Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula after the battle of Buxar is also within walking distance.
Ghanta Ghar: The heart of Faizabad city, houses a clock tower (Ghanta means ‘clock’ in Hindi and Ghar is the Hindi word for ‘house’) in the middle of the city center. All distances within the city are measured from this location. The place is also known as Chowk, which houses the main vegetable and spice market in the town.
Shringi Rishi Ashram: 35 km from Faizabad in Goshainganj is ashram of Sage (Rishi in Sanskrit/Hindi) Shringi. Shringi Rishi performed ‘Putrakameshti Yajya’ for King Dashrath of Ayodhya, after that Lord Rama and his three brothers were born. There is an ashram of Shringi Rishi situated at Sherwaghat near Mehbubganj 11 km from Goshainganj on the banks of Sarayu river at Sherwa Ghat. Legend has it that Shringi Rishi cursed King Parikshit for his sinful conduct against rishi Lomash. The boons and curse uttered by him were proved to be absolutely true. Rishi Shringi was a distinguished expert of the super science of mantras. A temple of Shringi Rishi, is also located at Sherwaghat, and a fair is held every year in May in his honour. A cave is also located in district Faizabad near Mehbubganj Near Goshainganj where he is supposed to have stayed. It is a long cave where he is supposed to do ‘yagna’ (Ritual) and is worth seeing. A place called Dilasigang. This is amazing place as located on Ghaghra bank River.
Maharshi Balmiki Ashram Babuapur : This is quite underated but a very beautiful place in Faizabad to visit named on the great saint #Maharishi #Balmilki who wrote Ramayan in sanskrit language in the time of Lord Rama. It is located 28 km from Faizabad city in Babuapur village directly connected with dilasiganj. its amazing river side of Ghaghra (Saryu), which is a holy river here and you can see the natural beauty here like sunrise and sunset. Its interesting for the one who loves to click raw pictures.
Shopping places
Faizabad Chowk: Next to Ghanta Ghar, is the central market of Faizabad town. One can find vegetables, fruits and spices, jewellery shops, clothing and other retail.
Rekabgunj: About a kilometer away from Chowk (towards Lucknow) lies the Rekabgunj market which has a multitude of pharmacies. The market also has some seed shops which cater to the farmers of the adjoining regions. Many Restaurants and Hotels are there when going towards Lucknow. This is one of the Tourist’s spot.
Bajaja: (now known as Subhas Nagar)A place adjacent to Chowk towards Sultanpur Road holds a market for Clothes and garments. In Urdu Bajaja means cloth market. This area also holds major banks viz Union Bank of India, SBI and Allahabad Bank. Abha hotel in the centre of bajaja and in the main city.
Fatehganj: This is a market mainly for wholesale grocery and other house hold items. This area is on the same road on which Bajaja falls. Hotel Krishna Palace is adjacent to the fountain near Faizabad jail. This is the place which is near to Bus Station as well as Railway Station. This is one of the Tourist’s spot.