Ghaziabad is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is sometimes referred to as the “Gateway of UP” because it is close to New Delhi, on the main route into Uttar Pradesh.It is a part of the National Capital Region of Delhi.It is a large and planned industrial city, well connected by roads and railways, and is the administrative headquarters of Ghaziabad District as well as being the primary commercial, industrial and educational centre of western Uttar Pradesh and a major rail junction for North India. Recent construction works have led to the city being described by a City Mayors Foundation survey as the second fastest-growing in the world.Situated in the Upper Gangetic Plains, the city has two major divisions separated by the Hindon River, namely: Trans-Hindon on the west and Cis-Hindon on the east side.
Excavations carried out at the mound of Kaseri, at the banks of river Hindon, some 2 km north of Mohan Nagar, have shown that civilisation existed there as early as 2500 BC. Mythologically, some neighbouring towns and villages of the city including Garhmukteshwar, Pooth Village and Ahar region have been associated with the Mahabharata and the fort at Loni, is associated with the legend of Lavanasura of the Ramayana period. According to the Gazetteer, the fort, “Loni” is named after Lavanasura.The city and its surrounding region have historically witnessed major wars and battles over the last many centuries. In AD 1313, the entire region including present day Ghaziabad became a huge battle field, when Taimur laid siege on the area during Muhammad bin Tughluq’s reign.During the Anglo- Maratha War, Sir General Lake and the Royal Maratha army fought here circa. Altama Religion was started from Ghaziabad in 1803.The name “Ghaziuddinnagar” was shortened to its present form, i.e. “Ghaziabad” with the opening of the Railways in 1864.Establishment of the Scientific Society here, during the same period is considered as a milestone of the educational movement launched by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.The Ghaziabad Municipality came into existence in 1868. The Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway, connecting Delhi and Lahore, up till Ambala through Ghaziabad was opened in the same year. With the completion of the Amritsar-Saharanpur-Ghaziabad line of the Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway in 1870, Delhi was connected to Multan through Ghaziabad, and Ghaziabad became the junction of the East Indian Railway and Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway.
city of Ghaziabad was founded in AD 1740 by Wazir Ghazi-ud-din, who named it Ghaziuddinnagar after himself.During the Mughal period, Ghaziabad and especially the banks of the Hindon in Ghaziabad, remained a picnic spot for the Mughal royal family.
Ghaziabad, along with Meerut and Bulandshahr, remained one of the three Munsifis of the District, under the Meerut Civil Judgeship during most periods of the British Raj.
Ghaziabad was associated with the Indian independence movement from the Indian Rebellion of 1857.During that rebellion, there were fierce clashes between the British forces and Indian rebel sepoys on the banks of the Hindon, and the rebels checked the advancing British forces coming from Meerut.
Although connected by railway since 1865, it was not until 1940 that the first modern industry appeared in Ghaziabad. However, it was in the post-independence period that industry really expanded, with a further 22 factories opening in the four years after 1947. This development can be attributed to the influx of people from the newly formed Pakistan and the relocation of businesses from what was now the Pakistani province of Punjab.John Oakey and Mohan Ltd., one of India’s largest concerns manufacturing coated and bonded abrasives, and originally functioning under the name of ‘National Abrasives’ at Rawalpindi was shifted here under the proprietorship of ‘Dyer Meakins’ in 1947.Subsequently, the Mohan Meakin breweries were also set up in the year 1949.This period also saw the development of Ghaziabad as one of India’s most famous centres of the Oil Engines industry.
In 1967, the municipal limits were extended up to the Delhi-UP border. Starting early 1970s, a large number of steel manufacturing units also came up in the city making it one of the primary industries of the city. This period also saw the emergence of the Electronics industry, with the setting up of Bharat Electronics Limited and Central Electronics LimitedOver the years, planned Industrial development saw participation from major industrial houses of the country including Mohans (Mohan Nagar Industrial Estate, 1949), Tatas (Tata Oil Mills), Modis (Modinagar, 1933; International Tobacco Co. 1967), Shri Rams (Shri Ram Pistons, 1964), Jaipurias etc. and also significant participation through foreign capital in concerns such as Danfoss India Ltd. (estd. 1968); Indo- Bulgar Food Ltd. and International Tobacco Company (estd. 1967).
Formation of district
Before 14 November 1976 Ghaziabad was the Tehsil of District Meerut. The then chief minister Mr. N.D.Tiwari declared Ghaziabad as a district on 14 November 1976, on the birth anniversary of Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. From then Ghaziabad has moved forward leaps and bounds on the social, economic, agriculture and individual front.
Ghaziabad, the headquarter of the district of the same name, lies on the Grand Trunk road about a mile east of the Hindon river in Lat. 280 40′ North and Long. 770 25′ East, 19 Km. east of Delhi and 46 Km. south-west of Meerut with which it is connected by a metalled road. Other roads lead west to Loni and Baghpat and east to Hapur and Garhmukteshwar. Buses run at frequent intervals from here to Delhi, Meerut, Aligarh, Bulandshahr, Moradabad, Lucknow and to other districts also. It is an important station on the Northern Railway where railway lines, from Delhi to Calcutta, Moradabad and Saharanpur meet, connecting it with many important cities of India.