Golaghat which was one of the largest subdivisions of Assam later, elevated to the position of a full-fledged district of Assam on 15 August 1987, is the headquarters of Golaghat district and is a sister town to Jorhat which is about 55 km away.
The place had been elevated to a subdivision away back in 1846. It has the earliest post/mail service and telegraphic communication systems in Assam that dates back to 1876
Golaghat has one of the oldest social – literature/rhetorical congresses of Assam. The Golaghat Sahitya Sabha is one of the oldest congresses of Asam Sahitya Sabha, started in 1918. It has been a District Headquarters since 1987. It is the only place in Assam to have SAI – STC after Guwahati.
Golaghat has been divided into following divisions:
The name Golaghat (‘Gola’ which means shop and ‘Ghat’ meaning the landing point of river ferry) originated from the shops established by the ‘Marwari’ businessmen during the mid-20th century at the bank of river Dhansiri near present Golaghat town.
Stone inscription of Nagajari Khanikar gaon of Sarupathar, dating back to the 5th century, reveals that there was an independent kingdom in Doyang – Dhansiri valley and relics of ramparts, brick structures, temples, tanks etc. discovered in these area confirms the presence of a kingdom during 9th and 10th century.
The Doyang – Dhansiri valley came under the rule of Ahom’s during the 16th century. Prior to that, this part was ruled by the Kacharis known as Herombial. During Ahom rule this area was under ‘Morongi – Khowa Gohain’, an administrative officer.
Golaghat during British Rule
After British took possession of Assam, Doyang – Dhansiri valley was included under the newly formed Golaghat subdivision of Sibsagar District in 1846. Golaghat was one of the largest subdivisions of Assam which was later, elevated to the position of a full-fledged district of Assam on 15 August 1987. Golaghat boasts of having one of the earliest post/mail service and telegraphic communication systems.
The earliest head post offices of the Assam Circle of British Assam were located in Golaghat besides Debrughur, Gouhati, Jorhat, Nowgaon, Sibsagar, Shillong and Tezpore (spellings as appear in the book – Glimpse of Assam).Much later after telegraph lines had been stretched between Calcutta and Guwahati in 1869; Golaghat got its speaking wires’ system in and around 1876. The telegraphic lines (speaking wires) were stretched to connect Golaghat with Kohima (in Nagaland), Shillong with Guwahati, Sibsagar with Nazira and Dibrugarh with Makum.
In British Assam, Golaghat derived its importance chiefly because of having advanced communication systems during that time and on account of its connection by road with Kohima.
Golaghat also has one of the oldest railway lines in Assam.Text noted from the book Glimpse of Assam written by Mrs. SR Ward in 1884 states that, Mr. Bryers who was then the Chief of Cachar and Assam Railway Survey succeeded in finding a railway route that would be carried up the Dhansiri valley to Golaghat… thus giving Assam direct railway communication with Chittagong and Calcutta.
Golaghat is known for its notable contribution in India’s Freedom Struggle, Arts, Literature and Culture and Sports