Lakhimpur is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. The district headquarters are located at North Lakhimpur. The district is bounded on the north by Siang and Papumpare District of Arunachal Pradesh and on the east by Dhemaji District and Subansiri River. Majuli Sub Division of Jorhat District stands on the southern side and Gahpur sub division of Sonitpur District is on the West.
Lakhimpur figures largely in the annals of Assam as the region where successive invaders from the east first reached the Brahmaputra. The most prominent of them were the Sutiya rulers who held the areas of the present district for long, until the outbreak of the Ahom-Sutiya war in the 16th century and eventually the area came under the rule of the Ahom dynasty. The Burmese, who had ruined the native kingdoms, at the end of the 18th century, were in 1826 expelled by the British under the Treaty of Yandaboo. They placed the southern part of the state, together with Sivasagar under the rule of Raja Purandhar Singh; but it was not till 1838 that the whole was taken under direct British administration.
Lakhimpur district used to have several other districts of Arunachal Pradesh within its fold and was known as the Lakhimpur Frontier Tract. After independence, the district contained the present day Dibrugarh district, Tinsukia district and Dhemaji district. Its headquarters was at Dibrugarh.
In 1976, Dibrugarh district was separated from Lakhimpur.This was repeated on 14 October 1989, with the formation of Dhemaji district.
The name ‘Lakhimpur’ is believed to have come from word “Lakshmi”, the Hindu goddess of Wealth and Prosperity. The word “pur” has two meanings—first one is “full”, so ‘Lakhimpur’ means ‘full of paddy’. The second meaning is “City”, so ‘Lakhimpur’ means ‘The City of Wealth and Prosperity’. Besides, the district has alluvial soil which is very fertile. Also fish, vegetables, milk etc. were abundant.
Lakhimpur district occupies an area of 2,277 square kilometres (879 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to Indonesia’s Yapen Island.
Located in the north-east corner of the Indian State of Assam, the district of Lakhimpur lies on north bank of the river Brahmaputra. It is bounded on the north by Lower Subansiri and Papumpare Districts of the state of Arunachal Pradesh and on the east by Dhemaji District. Majuli, the largest river-island belonging to Jorhat District is on the south and Gohpur sub division of Sonitpur District is on the West. The Brahmaputra is navigable for steamers in all seasons as far as Dibrugarh, in the rainy season as far as Sadiya; its navigable tributaries within the district are the Subansiri, Ranganadi and Dikrong. The exact location of the district is 26.48’ and 27.53’ northern latitude and 93.42’ and 94.20′ east longitude (approx.).
The district has two sub divisions — Dhakuakhana and North Lakhimpur (sadar). Dhakuakhana Sub Division consists of two Police stations viz. Dhakuakhana and Ghilamara. North Lakhimpur Sub-division consists of 5 Police stations viz. North Lakhimpur, Boginadi, Narayanpur, Laluk and Bihpuria.
Forests are mainly tropical rain forest. Important reserved forests includes Ranga Reserve, Kakoi Reserve, Dulung Reserve and Pabho Reserve. Some varieties are Hollokh (Terminalia myriocarpa), Ajhar (Lagerstroemia speciosa), Simolu (Bombax ceiba or Salmalia malabarica), Sum (Machilus), Gomari (Gmelina arborea), Sisu (Dalbergia sissoo), Silikha (Terminalia chebula), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Nahar (Mesua ferrea) etc. Wild elephants, buffaloes, tigers, deer etc. are there in the forests. Varieties of bird species are observed in swampy areas.
The great Subansiri River has legends of once famous gold washing. But as of now there is no any major exploration of minerals in the district, except some minor exploration for petroleum by ONGC (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation) near Dhakuakhana.
Economy of Lakhimpur is mainly based on agriculture. Major crops are rice, tea, mustard, sugarcane, etc. Small number of SSc and MSc industries are located in the district.