The Bidar district is the northernmost part of the Karnataka state in India. Geographically, it resembles the Crown of the State occupying its northeastern tip. It is bounded by Nizamabad and Medak districts of Telangana state on the eastern side, Latur and Osmanabad districts of Maharashtra state on the western side, Nanded district of Maharashtra state on the northern side and Gulbarga district on southern side.
The Bidar district is constituted by five talukas viz. Aurad, Basavakalyan, Bhalki, Bidar and Humnabad with Bidar being the headquarters of the district.It is connected with NH9 and NH218.
The recorded History of the city goes back to third century B.C. when it was of the great Mauryan Empire. After the Mauryas, Satavahanas, Kadambas and Chalukyas of Badami and later Rashtrakutas reigned over Bidar territory. Chalukyas of Kalyana and Kalachuris also regained the area. For a short period after Kalyani Chalukyas the area of Bidar was under the sevunas of Devgiri and Kakatiyas of Warangal.
Delhi rulers first headed by Allauddin Khilji and later Muhammed-bin-Tughluq took control of entire Deccan including Bidar. About the middle of the 14th Century the Officers of Sultan stationed in Deccan rebelled and this resulted in the establishment of Bahamani Dynasty in 1347 A.D. at Gulbarga (present Kalaburagi). There were frequent warfare between the Bahamnis and Vijaynagar Kingdom.
The history of the present fort at Bidar is attributed to the Sultan Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah the first sultan of the Bahmani dynasty to 1427 when he shifted his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar since it had better climatic conditions and was also a fertile and fruit bearing land. Earliest recorded history of its existence as a small and strong fort is also traced to Prince Ulugh Khan in 1322, whereafter it came under the reign of the Tughlaq dynasty.
With the establishment of the Bahmani dynasty (1347), Bidar was occupied by Sultan Ala-Ud-Din Bahman Shah Bahmani. During the rule of Ahmad Shah I (1422–1486), Bidar was made the capital city of Bahmani Kingdom. The old Fort was rebuilt and beautiful madrasas, mosques, palaces and gardens were raised. Mahmud Gawan who became the Prime Minister in 1466 was a notable figure in the history of Bidar. Bidar remained under the Barid Shahi dynasty until conquest by Bijapur Sultanate in 1619. Aurangzeb came to Bidar after his father and emperor Shah Jahan appointed him the Prince of Deccan. He wrested the Bidar Fort from the Adil Shahis after a 21-day war in 1656. With this, Bidar became a part of the Mughal dynasty for the second time.
In 1724, Bidar became a part of the Asaf Jahi Kingdom of the Nizams. It was annexed by the Bijapur Sultanate in 1619–20 but the Mughal viceroy of Aurangzeb took it in 1657 and thus became a part the Mughal Empire in 1686.Third son of Asaf jah l ( Nizam l ) Mir Sa’id Muhammad Khan, Salabat Jang ruled from Bidar fort during 1751 to 1762, till his Brother Mir Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah III Imprisoned him in this fort, and was killed in Bidar fort on 16 September 1763. Mohammedabad old name of Bidar is also on his name.
Thus, Bahmanis ruled over Gulbaraga from 1347 to 1424 and from Bidar from 1424 till the extinction of the kingdom and its disintegration into five independent kingdoms of Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar and Berar. After India’s independence, in 1956 when Bidar became part of Mysore (now Karnataka) state.
Bidar is located at 17.9°N 77.5°E,lies at a central position in Deccan, a plateau at an elevation of 2300 ft from the sea level. It has common boundaries with Maharashtra and Telangana, with the districts of Nizamabad and Medak in Telangana on the East and the districts of Nanded and Osmanabad in Maharashtra on the west. On the south lies the district Gulbarga of Karnataka.
Bidar is symbolically described as City of Whispering Monuments.The mountaintop town that served as the capital of medieval Deccan, has 98 monuments of which four national monuments are protected by the Archaelogical Survey of India and 14 by the State Archaeology Department, Karnataka.
Bidar earned a place on the World Monument Watchlist 2014.Of the 741 proposals received from 166 countries, 67 sites from 41 countries were finally selected which were announced by WMF president Bonnie Burnham in New York on October 8, 2013. Along with “the historic city of Bidar”, two other sites in India to figure in the list were the house of Sheikh Salim Chisti in Fatehpur Sikri and Juna Mahal in Rajasthan.
The WMF in its current watch site for “the historic city of Bidar” says ?challenges to the site include a lack of integrated conservation and maintenance, environmental pollution, and the construction of new developments and roadways that encroach on the historic fabric. Current land use regulations also threaten the economic livelihood of many of the city’s residents, and it is hoped that revised, context-specific planning policies would both protect Bidar’s historic assets while also supporting the future of its local population. It is hoped that Watch-listing will spur documentation and analysis of the city’s conditions, followed by policy development and applied conservation interventions that will reveal and maintain Bidar’s rich heritage, as well as support a robust and sustainable tourist industry.
Mahmud Gawan Madrasa
This grandiose madrasa was built by the prime-minister of the Bahmani empire, Mahmud Gawan in the late 15th century. Its only the most imposing building of the Bahmani period, but in its plan and in the general style of its architecture it is a unique monument of its kind in India. The Madrasa, a multi-disciplinary university he set up, which had a library of around 3,000 valuable manuscripts, was severely damaged when gunpowder stored inside the rooms went off during a 27-day siege of the city by Mughal king Aurangazeb in 1656. The Mahmud Gawan Madrasa is protected by the Archaelogical Survey of India.
Bidar Fort is considered one of the most formidable forts of the country. Bidar city was distinctly planned and built. The main citadel complex housed the royal places. Mahals and Mosque. Adjoining to this on the southern side, the city was built for the people. Both the citadel complex and city had separate forts for protection the plan of the Bidar city fortification is pentagonal. There are five gateways for entry into the city fort. It is main citadel complex fort which is stronger. It is built on the brink of the plateau. Engineers and architecture of various countries were employed on its design and construction.
The design of this monument represents the blend of the both Hindu and Muslim architecture. There are rooms in the basement of the Rangin Mahal.
The building had stately dimensions and exquisite surface decoration. The coronations of several Bahamanis and Barid Shahi sultans were held there. From the royal pavilion which is situated behind throne palace one can view the valley and low land below.
Gurudwara Nanak Jhira Sahib
Gurudwara Nanak Jhira Saheb is known to be one of Holiest Place For Sikh Devotees in India and is believed that Saint Guru Nanak visited the place during famine in this region. Papa Nashini Mandir Dargah Hazrat Shah Shamsuddin Quadri (Multani Basha) Dargah Hazrat Syed Abul Faiz Mailar Mallana Mandir Narasimha Jharni Mandir Changleri Veerabhadra Mandir