Burhanpur District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. The town of Burhanpur is the district headquarters.
Burhanpur District was created on 15 August 2003, from the southern portion of Khandwa District. The Tapti River flows through the district from east to west. The district is divided from Khandwa District on the north by the Satpura Range, which is also the divide between the Narmada River valley and the valley of the Tapti. The pass through the Satpuras that connects Burhanpur and Khandwa is one of the main routes connecting northern and southern India, and the Asirgarh fortress, which commands the pass, is known as the “Key to the Deccan”.
The district is divided into two development blocks, Burhanpur and Khaknar, and three tehsils, Nepanagar, Burhanpur, and Khaknar. Burhanpur District is part of Indore Division. one more major town near Burhanpur is Shahpur. Shahpur is just 10 km away from Burhanpur and the most developed town in Burhanpur district.
Burhanpur is one of the most prominent places for the people of Dawoodi Bohra Community as Burhanpur houses one of the holiest and largest dargah (Dargh-E-Hakimi) of the community.
The old Burhanpur city is surrounded by gates giving it the appearance of a fort.
A Y-class city, Burhanpur was an important city under Rashtrakuta Dynasty during 753–982. During excavations in Tapti River & Asirgarh Fort many coins, goddess idols and temples discovered which belongs to prehistoric era. But, Burhanpur got its name and fame during medieval time.
In 1388, Malik Nasir Khan, the Faruqi dynasty Sultan of Khandesh discovered Burhanpur, at the behest of Shaikh Zainuddin and renamed it after a well known medieval sufi saint, Burhan-ud-Din. Burhanpur became the capital of the Khandesh sultanate. Later, Miran Adil Khan II (reigned 1457–1501), another sultan of this dynasty built a citadel and a number of palaces in Burhanpur.During his long reign, Burhanpur was transformed to a major centre for trade and textile production. In 1601, Mughal emperor Akbar annexed the Khandesh sultanate and Burhanpur became the capital of Khandesh Subah of the Mughal empire.In 1609 Jahangir appointed his second son Parviz to the governorship of the Mughal provinces of the Deccan, and the prince chose Burhanpur as his headquarters as his residence.
It is a beautiful city with a lot of historical monuments existing in its expanse, primarily from the ruling times of Shah Jahan, the great Mughal emperor. Burhanpur was an important outpost of the Mughals. Shah Jahan spent a considerable time in this city, and helped add to the Shahi Qila. The Shahi Qila is one majestic palace in Burhanpur, located to the east of the Tapti River. Diwan-i-Aam and Diwan-i-Khas were built on the terrace of the Qila. Little of it remains today as the Qila is mostly in ruins now. However, the parts of the Palace that still stands displays amazing works of sculpture and exquisite carvings. The main attraction at the palace is the hamam or the royal bath. It was specifically built for Shah Jahan’s wife, Begum Mumtaz Mahal, so that she could enjoy a luxurious bath. It is said that she died here giving birth to her fourteenth child. Even today, the ceiling has many intricate paintings. One of these paintings depicts a monument which is said to have been the inspiration for the Taj Mahal.
Under the Marathas
In 1681, Burhanpur was raided by Sambhaji, In this campaign he was joined by his general Hambirrao Mohite.
Santaji Ghorpade attacked Burhanpur and Khandesh subha to force Aurangzeb to deploy more forces in Khandesh. This act by Santaji relieved some pressure of Mughal armies from Karnataka and Maratha swarajya.
The city was taken by Peshwa Bajirao during his reign to Malwa and Delhi. Maratha army under Sadashivrao Bhau who defeated the Nizam of Hyderabad and took control of the town. In 1761 the Marath army marched for Third Battle Of Panipat from the city.
At the down fall of Marathe Empire city went to Maratha Sardar Holkar, Scindia, and then finally 1818 handed over to British by Marathas.
Burhanpur is situated in the southwestern border of Madhya Pradesh near the banks of Tapti River (also called as Tapi River)
Burhanpur is gifted with large number of tourist spots. Firstly credited as a glorious past, that it has been ruled by several dynasties,it got many Historical places to be proud of. Secondly, the benefit of having three rivers, Tapti, Utavali & Mohna; has given many beautiful natural sights to Burhanpur. This small town has four small ghats. Being the home of a very diverse population, Burhanpur has an all India famous Gurudwara,Masjid,Church, a world famous Dargah &many well known Temples such as Swami Narayan Temple, Ganesh Temple etc.