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Kolar district,Karnataka

Kolar district is a district in Karnataka state of India. The town of Kolar is the district headquarters. Kolar district is located in the southern region of the State and is the easternmost district of the Karnataka State. The district is bounded by the Bangalore Rural district in the west Chikballapur district in the north, Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh in the east and on the south by Krishnagiri and Vellore district of Tamil Nadu.

On 10 September 2007, Kolar district was bifurcated to form the new district of Chikballapur.Due to the modern discovery of the Kolar Gold Fields, Kolar has become popularly known as the “Golden Land” of India.

History

Formerly, Kolar was known variously as Kolahala, Kuvalala and Kolala. Kolar was called Kolahalapura during the Middle Ages, but later came to be known as Kolar. Kolahahapura in Kannada meant “violent city”, as it was the battlefield for the warring kingdoms of Chalukyas in the north and Cholas to the south. It was the capital of the Gangas until the 4th century AD when they shifted the capital to Talakad in Mysore. In 1004 AD, the Cholas annexed Kolar until 1116 AD,. Vishnuvardhana (1108-1142 AD) freed Gangavadi from the Cholas, and in commemoration of his victory, built the celebrated Vijayanarayana Temple (Chennakesava Temple) at Belur.

The major and important temples in the town are Kolaramma Temple and Someshwara Temple. The Kolaramma temple is of Dravida Vimana style built in Ganga tradition in the 2nd century CE and dedicated to goddess Shakti. The temple was later renovated during the period of the teja arun Chola monarch Rajendra Chola I in the 10th century and Vijayanagara kings in the 15th century.Someswara Temple is a fine example of 14th century Vijayanagara art.

Early history of Kolar was compiled by Rev. Fred Goodwill, Superintendent of the Wesleyan Tamil Mission, Bangalore and Kolar Gold Fields. His studies and observations have been published in the quarterly journals of the Mythic Society and other academic journals.

Kolar is much older than Bangalore, its origin going back to the 2nd century AD. Gangas who were kannadigas, made Kolar their capital and ruled over Mysore, Coimbatore, Salem and Travancore. In the 13th Century AD, Sage Bhavanandi composed his treatise on Tamil grammar Nannool at the Ulagamadhi cave at KGF, under the patronage of Seeya Gangan one of the Ganga rulers who was born in Kolar and was a patron of arts and literature. Further Seeya Gangan’s inscriptions indicate that Kolar regained control of Kolar for the second time from Chola hands.

During the reign of the Cholas, King Uththama Chola (970 AD) is said to have built the temple for Goddess Renuka, in the avatar of Kolaahalamma and found the city of Kolaahalapuram. Local tradition indicates that the city was named after this deity of Kolaahalama. The Chola rulers Veera Chola, Vikrama Chola and Raja Nagendra Chola erected stone structures with inscriptions ar Avani, Mulbagal, Sitti Bettta and other places. Chola inscriptions also indicate the rule of Adithya Chola I (871-907 AD), Raja Raja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I over Kolar. These inscriptions refer to Kolar as ‘Nikarili Cholamandalam’ and also as ‘Jayam Konda Chola Manadalam’. Inscriptions of Rajendra Chola I also appear on the Kolaramma Temple. Many Siva temples were built in Kolar during the reign of the Cholas, such as the Someshwarar Temple at Maarikuppam Village, Sri Uddhandeshwari Temple at Maarikuppam Village, the Eswaran Temple at Oorugaumpet, the Sivan Temple at Madivala Village. The reign of the Cholas over Kolar lasted till 1116 AD. Sadly the Chola inscriptions scattered all over Kolar lie neglected, and some subject to wilful cultural vandalism.

In 1117 AD, Kolar came under the reign of the Hoysalas, and in 1254 AD the dominions were portioned among the two sons of King Someshwara, with Kolar included in the Tamil provinces that went to Ramanatha.

The Hoysala were defeated by the Vijaynagar Kingdom, and their rule over Kolar lasted from 1336-1664. During their reign the Sri Someshwara Temple at Kolar was built.

In the 17th Century, Kolar came under Maratha rule as part of the Jahagir of Shahaji for fifty years. Then under Muslim rule for seventy years. In 1720 AD, Kolar came under the Suba of Sira, with Fateh Mohammed, the father of Hyder Ali becoming the Faujdar of the province. After this Kolar passed thorugh different reigns such as Marathas, the Nawab of Cuddapah, Nizam of Hyderabad and finally Hyder Ali. In 1768, Kolar came under British rule briefly till 1770, then passed briefly again to Maratha rule and again Hyder Ali. In 1791 Lord Cornwallis conquered Kolar, before passing it back to Mysore under the peace treaty of 1792. Kolar has been part of the Mysore State since that time.

Around the Kolar region, there are numerous inscriptions which indicate reign of the Mahavalis (Baanaas), Pallavas and Vaidumbaas, at different points of time. Benjamin Lewis Rice recorded 1347 inscriptions in the Kolar District, in the 10th volume of Epigraphia Carnatica. Out of these inscriptions 422 are in Tamil, 211 in Telugu and the rest are in Kannada

Geography

Kolar District is in the state of Karnataka, India and belongs to its semi-arid drought-prone region. It lies between 77° 21′ to 78° 35′ east longitude and 20° 46′ to 130° 58′ north latitude, extending over an area of 8,225 km². Kolar District is located in the southern region of the state and happens to be the easternmost district of the Karnataka State. The district is bounded by the Bangalore Rural district in the west Chikballapur district in the north, Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh in the east and on the south by Krishnagiri of Tamil Nadu.

The district, at its greatest length, reaches about 135 km from north to south with almost the same distance from east to west. It occupies the table land of Mysore, bordering the eastern ghats. The general plateau surface is interrupted by a hills and peaks of varying heights, particularly in the north. The principal chain of mountains is the Nandidurga range which runs north from Nandi towards Penukonda and Dharmavaram of Andhra Pradesh. The rivers of the district are small and seasonal: Palar, Uttara Pinakini and Dakshina Pinakini are the important rivers which originate in the elevated regions.

Visitor attractions in and around Kolar district
There are many visitor attractions in Kolar district has its very nearer and convenient to travel just 68 km from Bangalore. See separate topic which talks about Kolar visitor attraction.
Kolar Taluk

  • Antara Gange
  • Kolaramma Temple and Someshwara Temple
  • Markandeya Hill
  • Therhalli
  • Kotilingeshwara
  • Guttahalli temple
  • Chowdeshwari temple, Beglihosahalli
  • Dargha Usama shah Wali On Hill Top
  • Dargah of Khutub Gowri Clock Tower
  • Darga Of Tippu Grand Parents in Clock Tower
  • Darga of Shabaz Shah Khalandar
  • Bangarapet

  • Budikote
  • Bethamangala
  • Kotilingeshwara
  • Bytarayappana Bett
  • Dodda kari
  • Dargah Hazrath Shashuddin Auliya. ( Bangarapet )
  • Dargha Hazrath Ghouse Shah Vali, (K.G.F)
  • Malur

  • Chikka Tirupati
  • Marikamba Temple
  • Dharmaraya Swamy Temple
  • Guttamma Temple, Doddakadathuru
  • Thirtha Bande, Masti
  • The famous 101 Temple in Tekal
  • Shivarapattana
  • Mindahalli
  • Tekal
  • pudeshetahalli
  • Mulbagal

  • anjaneya swami temple
  • sai mandir
  • ((Garuda Temple))- epic related temple,koladevi,mulbagal(T)
  • Byrakur
  • Guttahalli
  • Sri VaradarajaSwamy Temple Uttanur
  • Kurudumale
  • Avani
  • Dargha Hazrat Hyder-E- Sabdar
  • Chintamani (Chikballapur Dist)

  • Kaivara Kailasagiri and Bheema Bakasura Betta
  • Madanapalli (Andhra Pradhesh – Chittoor Dist)

  • Horsely Hills
  • Notable people

  • Hyder Ali – father of Tipu Sultan
  • D. V. Gundappa – well known Kannada poet
  • K. C. Reddy – first Chief Minister of Karnataka
  • Sir Mohammed Mustafa Saheb alis Kolar Mustafa – the richest person of Kolar in early 1887, and the Founder of Clock Tower Circle] in Kolar.
  • Maasti Venkatesh Ayengar – Kannada writer, Jnanpith award winner
  • KH Muniyappa Union Minister of state for Indian Railways, represents Kolar in the Parliament of India for a record sixth term.
  • N. R. Narayana Murthy – Chairman and Chief Mentor of Infosys Technologies Limited.
  • Soundarya – south Indian Film actress, mulbagal
  • A. N. Prahlada Rao highest Crossword writer in India