Giridih district is one of the twenty-four districts of Jharkhand state, India, and Giridih is the administrative headquarters of this district. As of 2011 it is the third most populous district of Jharkhand (out of 24), after Ranchi and Dhanbad.
Giridih district was created on 6 December 1972 by carving some parts of Hazaribagh district. In 1999 part of it became Bokaro district.
It is currently a part of the Red Corridor.
The district, covering an area of around 4854 km², is bounded on the north by Jamui district and Nawada district of Bihar state, on the east by the districts of Deoghar and Jamtara, on the south by Dhanbad and Bokaro, and on the west by Hazaribagh and Koderma districts.
Giridih has an average elevation of 289 metres (948 feet). Sri Sammeta Shikharji also known as the Parasnath Hills, located in Giridih is the highest mountain peak in Jharkhand. It is a conical granite peak located 4,477 feet (1,365 metres) above the sea level.
Giridih District is geographically divided into two natural divisions, which are the central plateau and lower plateau. The central plateau touches the western portion of the district near Bagodar block. The lower plateaus have an undulating surface and an average height of 1300 feet. In the north and north-west, the lower plateaus form fairly level tablelands until they reach the ghats when they drop to about 700 feet.
Giridih is rich in mineral resources, particularly in mica and coal and has several large coal fields with one of the best qualities of metallurgical coal in India. Gawan and Tisari blocks of the district have several mica mines, and coal is found abundantly at several places throughout the district. Mica is of importance not only to Jharkhand but to India and other countries as well.
Parasnath Hills are located in the district. There are two major rivers, namely, the Barakar River and the Sakri River. Barakar River passes through Birni and Pirtand blocks. Sakari river drains the areas of Deori and Gawan blocks. There are several smaller rivers, including Usri, with a major tourist attraction – Usri Falls.
In 2006 the Indian government named Giridh one of the country’s 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).It is one of the 21 districts in Jharkhand currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
The district comprises thirteen community development blocks, namely, Bagodar, Bengabad, Birni, Deori, Dhanwar, Dumri, Gandey, Gawan, Giridih, Jamua, Pirtand, Suriya and Tisri.
There are six Vidhan Sabha (legislative assembly) constituencies in this district. Dhanwar, Bagodar, Jamua and Gandey assembly constituencies are part of Kodarma constituency. Giridih and Dumri assembly constituencies are part of Giridih constituency