Godda district is one of the twenty-four districts of Jharkhand state in eastern India. It lies in the northeastern part of the state. The geographical area that now comprises Godda district used to be part of the erstwhile Santhal Parganas district. Godda town is the headquarters of Godda district.
The area of the district is 2110 km², with a population of around 861,000. The district is without any rail link, the nearest railway station being Barahat. The main economic activity of the people is agriculture, and major crops are paddy, wheat and maize.
Godda is the land of a tribe called Santhals. Godda is not only a land of tribes, the local inhabitants also include the non-tribal and urban people.
Godda is located at 24.83°N 87.22°E.It has an average elevation of 77 metres (252 feet). Godda came into existence as the 55th district of undivided Bihar on May 25, 1983. After the bifurcation of Bihar into Jharkhand state on November 15, 2000, it was one of 18 districts of Jharkhand.National Highway 133 (NH 133) passes through the city of Godda.
Godda was a part of undivided Santhal Pargana district until 1981 census. Later the old Godda sub-division of Santhal Pargana was separated and formed as a new district. As a consequence of the Santhal rebellion of 1845-55 the district of Santhal Paragna was created from portions of Bhagalpur and Birbhum. Godda district at present comprises eight Blocks: Meherma, Mahagama, Boarijor, Pathargama, Godda, Sundurpahari, Poraiyahat and Thakur Gangati. Godda is the only town in the district. There are 2311 villages in the district.
Godda district is devoid of any railway track. Many villages are still deprived of electricity and people suffer from lack of water for farming. Most of the inhabitants are farmers.
Godda has a diverse collection of places of scenic interest.
1. The most popular is the Ratneswar dham situated in Shivpur region. Ratneswar dham similar to Baba Baidyanath Mandir has a rich collection of Shivlings where people from every part of the world come and tribute the holy water to Lord Shiva. The people fetch the water from Sultanganj in Bihar and walk barefoot for about 50 kilometres to reach here every Sawan in June. The place has many temples in its premise and people come and visit them every day. Markets and shops are plenty in number
2. Yogini maa mandir situated in Pathargama is also globally famous. It is believed that Goddess sati bodypart had fallen at this place when Lord Shiva was carrying her body around the world. People from various parts of the world visit the place which is located on a hilltop having around 400 stairs to move to the peak. There is a very small cave where the deity exists. People enter into the cave to have a look at it. It is very difficult to get in and come out. But the person doing is blessed deeply. A ropeway to get on the hill is being constructed. This place again has a pleasant market place situated on both the sides of the road.
3. The Sundar dam is situated along the Godda-Pakur state highway at a distance of around 10 kilometres. This place has a very rich collection of wildlife and has a huge forest reserve. This place is unique in the country. Many waterfalls and breeze have their origin here. It is an excellent Picnic spot and people from other districts and states love to come here every 1st day of January with their relatives.
4. The Lalmatia region of the district also has many hillocks and plains where people come and spend their holidays. It is situated near Mahagama and has roads connecting Godda to Bihar. Lalmatia has the credit of occupying the continents largest open cast mining belt and its coal is supplied to various parts of the world. People come here and visit the loading point where they get to see how coal is extracted from the earth using dynamite whose sound is clearly heard for 17 kilometres. Loading point is 10 kilometres away from the site where blasting occurs and people have to apply for gate passes to go there.