Sonipat district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. Sonipat town is the district headquarters. It is a part of National Capital Region along with Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad.
The district borders Delhi union territory in south, Panipat District in the north, Jind District in the north-west, Uttar Pradesh state in the east with the Yamuna River acting as a border and Rohtak District in the west.
Origin of name
The district is named after its administrative headquarters, Sonipat. Sonipat was earlier known as Sonprastha, which later became Svarnaprastha (Golden City), which is derived from two Sanskrit words, Svarna (Gold) and Prastha (Place). Over a period of time, the classical name Svarnprastha’s pronunciation degraded into Svarnpat, and then to its current form, Sonipat. The earliest reference of this city comes in the epic Mahabharata, and at that time, it was one of the five villages demanded by the Pandavas in lieu of the kingdom of Hastinapur.
This district was carved out of the erstwhile Rohtak district on 22 December 1972.
Broadly speaking, the entire district is a part of the Punjab plain, but the area is not level in some parts. Over most of the district, the soil is fine loam of rich colour. However, some areas have sandy soil and others Kallar. The plain has a gradual slope to the south and east. The district may be roughly divided into three regions: The Khadar, the upland plain and the sandy region.
Along the River Yamuna which is a narrow flood plain ranging from 2 to 4 miles in width and is formed by the river along its course. The Khader plain is 20 to 30 ft. lower adjoining upland plain. The soil is fine clay loam left by the receding floods of the Yamuna. Farmers in the Khadar area cultivate rice and sugar cane. Recently, the farmers have started planting Banana, Pappaya and other fruits trees in this area.
The upland plain
It consists of Sonipat tehsil lying to the west of the Khadar, and is the most extensive of the three regions: The Upland Plain is covered with old alluvium, which if properly irrigated, is highly productive. There is extensive Farming of crops, oil seeds, horticultural plants, vegetables and flowers in this region. The ridges in Gohana tehsil represent the northern most extension of the Aravallis.
The sandy region
A much smaller part of the district is covered with soil consisting of sand or sandy loam. Parts of this region have high PH values leading Kallor land.
Places of interest
Khwaja Khizr Tomb
The tomb of Khwaja Khizr houses the remains of the saint and son of Darya Khan who lived during the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi. The structure was built between 1522 and 1525 AD. The tomb stands on an elevated platform and is one of the few monuments where red sandstone along with ‘kankar’ blocks have been used. The ceiling is decorative and made of multicolor floral designs. The cenotaph chamber is surrounded by a dome-shaped structure which rests on a small drum of octagonal shape. Now its under the protection of Archaeological Survey of India and surrounded by 4 acres of gardens.
There are several Mughal buildings on the outskirts of the city, including the Mosque of Abdullah Nasir-ud-din, who was a descendant from Mushid of Iran.
The main water system in the district is the Yamuna River and the irrigation canals flowing out of it. The river flows besides the rural belt in the eastern side of district. It also acts as a natural boundary between the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.